The Legitimacy of Public Service Broadcasting in the 21st Century

The Case of Scandinavia

Håkon Larsen

University of Oslo, Norway

Nordicom Review 35 (2014) 2, pp. 65-76


“The present paper examines the debate on the future of public service broadcasting in Norway and Sweden in the 2000s. I have analysed the discourses on PSB that dominate the public debate in the two countries, the cultural policy related to PSB, as well as the legitimising rhetoric of the Norwegian public service broadcaster Norsk Rikskringkasting (NRK) and that of the Swedish public service broadcaster Sveriges Television (SVT). Theoretically, the analysis draws on normative theories on the role of PSB in promoting democracy, culture and a well-functioning public sphere, as well as theories on democracy and the public sphere per se.”

Read this recommended article

PSM’s Role in the Development of Media Technology and Applications


Zorana Kostic

Department of Media and Communications, University of Sydney, Australia

Published for RIPE@2014, Workgroup 5: PSM and Convergence


Triggered by the pressures of globalization, the processes of media convergence have split into a two-way communication process consisting of both convergent and-divergent axes. The challenges this duality has created have a continuing and accelerating impact on public broadcasting around the world, and the way it is being experienced by audiences. The more the themes and technology of convergence are exploited in and through the media, the more possibilities appear across multiple digital platforms, which cohere to form a type of techno-postmodernism or techno-cyberism. These convergent processes, where they intersect with public broadcasting have been branded, for want of a better term, as Public Service Media (PSM). The paper analyses these processes through an examination of transformational experiences in the oldest PSBs in the Asia-Pacific region, Japan’s NHK and Australia’s ABC. In this context the NHK and ABC become paradigms of how technological knowledge and social/cultural transformation can be reimagined to benefit the public interest.

The Export of US Infotainment

The Death of International Public Service Television

Jane M. Shattuc

Emerson College, Boston, US

Published for RIPE@2014, Workgroup 5: PSM and Convergence


What is the unstated line that public service networks will not cross when attempting to compete with commercial networks in terms of popular culture? This debate is often framed around documentary and the term “infotainment”—a value-laden term that cuts off any positive possibility of using popular culture as an effective tool for public service. What exactly does this mean? Working with concepts drawn from cultural studies specifically the work of Pierre Bourdieu, I will provide a discourse analysis of how popular culture and the fear of infotainment has been historically understood in the construction of three diverse public television networks.


Auntie Knows Best?

Public broadcasters and current affairs knowledge

Stuart Soroka, Blake Andrew, Toril Aalberg, Shanto Iyengar, James Curran, Sharon Coen, Kaori Hayashi, Paul Jones, Gianpetro Mazzoleni, June Woong Rhee, David Rowe and Rod Tiffen.

Cambridge University Press, 1 January 2013, British Journal of Political Science


“PSBs are a central part of national news media landscapes. In many countries, PSBs are the first choice of citizens when it comes to news providers. And in perhaps more countries still, PSBs are thought of as specialists in provision of hard news.

We test this proposition here using survey data from a large cross-national survey involving indicators of current affairs knowledge and media consumption. Specifically, we examine whether exposure to public versus commercial news influences the knowledge citizens possess about current affairs, both domestically and internationally. We also test, using propensity score analysis, whether there is variation across PSBs in this regard.

Results indicate that compared to commercial news, watching PSB has a net positive influence on knowledge of hard news, though not all PSBs are equally effective in contributing to knowledge acquisition. This knowledge gap between PSB and commercial news media consumption appears to be mitigated by factors such as de jure independence proportion of public financing, and audience share.”


Ripe 2013: The Value of Public Service Media

The sixth publication in the series of RIPE Readers on PSM published by NORDICOM

Editors: Gregory Ferrell Lowe & Fiona Martin



With public service media under increasing scrutiny by governments and media markets alike, this reader contains a selection of chapters which investigate the diverse conceptions of public service value in media, keyed to distinctions in the values and ideals that legitimate media as a public service in many countries.

Chapters include ‘Comparing Public Value as a Media Policy Term in Europe’, ‘Disaster Coverage and Public Value from Below’ and ‘ A Market Failure Perspective on Value Creation in PSM’ as well as many others.

To access the full publication, click here.

The Public Sphere, Social Networks and Public Service Media

Petros Iosifidis

Sociology, City University, London

2011. Information, Communication and Society, 14(5), p. 619-637

Taylor and Francis Publications



“The traditional Habermasian concept of the national public sphere created by the mass media of newspapers and television is said to have transformed to a multi-layered sphere of online and social networks which are increasingly important in engaging and mobilizing citizenship and in shaping the discourse within which rational discussion takes place. This article argues that the democratizing and empowering functions of the Internet and the new social media is being exaggerated and represent technological optimism for a number of reasons: the open participation of the Internet can turn chaotic; there is a problem of inclusiveness; censorship might be an issue; the Internet has become a major arena for corporate activity; the Internet’s content is highly partisan; and above all, extensive dialogue and critical discussion (the very essence of the public sphere) is often absent on the Net. The article argues that open-platform Public Service Media (PSM) are capable of developing more comprehensive and inclusive social frameworks than online providers. Despite the growing financial gulf between PSM and their commercial competitors, public institutions should be free to expand online and into different platforms. As trusted media brands, PSM contribute to the creation of an inclusive public sphere, enhanced civic engagement and informed citizenship.”

To read the full article, follow this link to Taylor and Francis Online.

Media Coverage of Science and Technology in Africa

Sponsored by UNESCO

Department of Journalism and Communication, Makere University

Principal Investigator: George W. Lugalambi, PhD



This paper critically analyses the role media has to play in facilitating the public understanding of science and technology across Africa. It does so against the backdrop of little or no previous studies on the subject, with few of them having systematically investigated the volume, quality, scope and perceptions of science and technology coverage.

This article seeks to amend this lack of previous research and explores coverage within the context of the contemporary media landscape of Cameroon, Kenya, Ghana, Namibia, South Africa, and Uganda.

Click here for the full article.

Public policies for public service media

UK and the German policy cases, with warnings and lessons from the USA

A 2010 article by Prof. Peter Humphreys (University of Manchester) that focuses on the impact of new technologies and changing media markets on public service broadcasting. The first part of the article focuses on the impact of new technologies and changing media markets on PSB whilst the second focuses on how to maintain a plurality of content and public service players. US examples and broadcast experiences are used comparatively throughout this paper.

This article was published for the RIPE@2010 conference series.

For the full article, click here

Riding the Wave

Public Service Television in the Multiplatform Era

Mary Debrett

La Trobe University, Australia

Media, Culture and Society, Sage Publications, 2009, 31(5), p.807-827


Despite their funding dilemmas, public service broadcasters are finding new legitimisation in the digital era. Re-asserting their mainstream status in the fragmenting marketplace, PSB institutions around the world are identifying new ways of delivering public service goals via interactive, on-demand media services across a range of platforms. By repositioning as media content companies, PSBs are forging new kinds of relationships with the public as viewers, users and producers, connecting communities, while also delivering an array of pluralist, personalised services. However, such changes inevitably bring new problems – conflicts with established practices, increased costs, new enemies in the marketplace and the temptation of new commercial revenue streams. Grounded in a series of industry interviews taken from across six case studies and referencing recent literature and policy documents, this article analyses the impact of public broadcasting’s digital rebirth on traditional public service principles.

Read this recommended article in full

Beyond Broadcasting: The future of state owned broadcasters in Southern Africa

Written in 2009, this recommended article, supported by FesMedia Africa, conveys the complicated changes facing state-owned broadcasters in Southern Africa. 

These changes include those influenced by the “digitisation of production, distribution and consumption of public interest news and current affairs” and their impact on key broadcast players across the region.

The report is split into sub-reports about the media landscape in individual states and the influence of technological, regulatory and conceptual changes to broadcasting services.

For full access to this open-source article, click here