State Media Monitor: The world's state media database

State Media Monitor: The world’s state media database

Center for Media, Data & Society, Marius Dragomir

The CMDS has made available its global database of state-administered media organisations, with information on how they are funded, managed and editorially controlled.

“Nearly 80% of the 546 state-administered media companies in 151 countries covered by this report lack editorial independence, analysis of the State Media Matrix data shows. More than 80% of the 436 media outlets whose editorial agenda is controlled by the government in various ways are media companies that fall into our state-controlled media category comprising outlets predominantly funded, managed and editorially controlled by the government.”

Read more: The State of State Media (CMDS)

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PSM Innovations

The best and latest public media innovations worldwide

PSM Innovations is a regularly updated feature, which explores the wide variety of innovations being adopted by public media globally. This includes anything from pioneering a new form of tech, or a new way of reaching unheard communities; to a bold move to protect journalists, or an experimental method of countering misinformation. 

This is an opportunity to shine a spotlight on how public media organisations are pushing boundaries and developing solutions to new or existing challenges.

If your organisation is embarking on a new innovation which you think PMA would be interested to hear about and share with our members, email us at


NOS experiments with translation software

NOS has trialled a new translation programme to make their information more accessible and reliable for Turkish and Arabic speakers.

Thai PBS’ network of local radio stations

The ‘Northern Roaming Project’ is the latest innovative example of Thai PBS using a network of stations to be accessible for all audiences.

Priority to provide public service on TikTok

Providing trusted news and information on TikTok has become a bigger priority for some public media organisations to help combat growing disinformation on the platform.

SABC satellite

SABC indigenous language news channel to be launched

SABC plans to improve news provision with the launch of a 24-hour news channel in all of South Africa's indigenous languages.

radio mic

NBC helps raise breast cancer awareness

A Namibian public radio station has partnered with a cancer charity to raise awareness and funds for breast cancer.

The Well Said project: “Yle’s act for a functioning democracy”

A project co-led by Finland’s public media organisation aims to improve the discussion culture in Finland, and support democracy.

Thai PBS' new website launched October 10, 2022. Credit: Thai PBS

Developing a website with public service at its core

Thai PBS launched a new website on October 10, 2022, which consolidates quality programs from 10 sub-sites in one place to provide users with access to comprehensive content.

Digital radio

Discovering local music through public radio

At a time when it’s harder than ever to discover new local music, public radio stations across the United States and beyond continue to play a key role in bolstering local music economies.

The difference between regular font and the new font for dyslexic users on the NOS app. Credit: NOS

Dutch public broadcaster app made more accessible for people with dyslexia

A Dutch public media organisation has applied a new font style in its digital app which will make it easier to read for those with dyslexia.

Øyvind Vasaasen, NRK Security Manager. Credit: Christian Fougner/NRK

NRK publishes first ever threat assessment report

The Head of Security for Norway’s public media organisation explains what the new threat assessment involves and how it's mitigating risks.


RTC FM adopts new systems, technologies for crisis management

Radio Turks & Caicos is developing a new weather reporting system for the region as part of its crisis management function.

SRG SSR building

The importance of Smart TV for SRG SSR

Switzerland’s public broadcaster, SRG SSR is enhancing its own streaming offer and looking at ways of optimising its reach via Smart TV.

Over to you...

Does your public media organisation have an innovation that you’d like to share?

Let us know by emailing us at

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public media

PSM Research & Resources


Welcome to our shared public media research and resource page in collaboration with IAPMR and MJRC

Here you will find a broad selection of recommended journals, reports, websites and guides related to the core values of public service media.

Topics include best practices, country reports and the mounting challenges faced by PSM worldwide such as media capture, diminishing budgets and media convergence.

The resources below have been curated by the Public Media Alliance in collaboration with the International Association of Public Media Researchers (IAPMR) and the Media and Journalism Research Center (MJRC). You can find out more about our collaborators at the bottom of the page.

Is there something we have missed? Please get in touch, we would be pleased to review it here. Also see the Our Publications section for our own reports and handbooks as well as the InnoPSM website. We also keep track of research news and calls for papers.

Most of the following resources are open-source but some contain links to articles that require an institutional log-in to view. Please refer to your University, institution or employer if this is the case.

Coronavirus: Resources & best practices

Essential resources for sourcing and reporting news about the coronavirus pandemic

Research & Resources

Use the headers below to filter resources

Public service media in Europe: law, theory and practice

Contributing to a rethink of Public Service Media, this book combines theoretical insights and legal frameworks with practice, examining theory and policy development in a bottom-up manner.

Read More

Universalism in Public Service Media

Since the start of telephony and later in broadcasting, the pursuit of universal service has legitimated the ownership and operation of media as a public trust. This edition of RIPE looks at how this concept has changed.

Read More

Achieving Viability for Public Service Media in Challenging Settings

Multiple international organisations recognise the value of public service media (PSM) as an essential component of democratisation. Yet how can PSM achieve viability in settings where models of media independence and credibility are unfamiliar or rejected by political leaders?

Read More

A Future for Public Service Television

April 2018
This volume examines not only the unexpected resilience of TV as cultural pastime and aesthetic practice but also the prospects for public service television in a digital, multichannel ecology.

Read More

Ripe 2013: The Value of Public Service Media

The sixth publication in the series of RIPE Readers on PSM published by NORDICOM

Read More

Our Partners

We are pleased to partner with the IAPMR and MJRC for this resource


The International Association of Public Media Researchers (IAPMR) brings together quality academic and industrial research from different disciplines. We support the continual evolution of public service media by aggregating theory and practice.  We look critically from industrial, production, audience, technological, economic and societal perspectives. We run conferences, produce publications and communicate knowledge to academia, industry, governments, and publics.


The Media and Journalism Research Center is an independent media research and policy think tank that seeks to improve the quality of media policymaking and the state of independent media and journalism through research, knowledge sharing and financial support. MJRC continues the work of the Center for Media, Data & Society (CMDS), which until October 2022 operated as a unit of Central European University (CEU).

Header Image: Students Experimenting With Video Software stock photo. Credit: TommL/iStock

Research News

The latest calls for papers and news regarding public service media and communications research.

Call for papers are placed in order of upcoming deadlines. Conference dates can also be found in our events section.

Research funds and other opportunities can also be found via our Grants & Opportunities page.

Nothing found.

Finding the funds for journalism to thrive

Finding the funds for journalism to thrive

Policy options to support media viability

UNESCO | Dr. Anya Schiffrin, Prof. Emily Bell, Dr. Julie Posetti & Francesca Edgerton
Published: 2022

“This brief comes as part of the UNESCO series World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development. The brief addresses how policymakers can best respond to the severe financial crisis threatening the supply of independent journalism. It provides a typology of global responses, assesses their pros and cons, and makes 22 actionable recommendations. It builds on the Windhoek+30 Declaration, which underlines media viability as a core principle of information as a public good.”

[Text sourced from UNESCO]

Download policy brief

media freedom

Our Publications

The Public Media Alliance has an established role and reputation in commissioning original research and reports on key themes and stakeholders in public service media.

Here you will find a range of publications, including those produced during our time as the Commonwealth Broadcasting Association. They are all authored by an expert group of media professionals and academics, and cover a diverse range of topics, from the role of documentaries in advocacy to the way in which broadcasters cover elections.

True to the principles of public service media, the following content is free to download.

Situation Report: Media literacy, disinformation & misinformation in the Caribbean


The Public Media Alliance’s latest situation report has called for a programme of media and information literacy across all levels of the school curriculum, to counter the threat of mis- and disinformation in the Caribbean.

The “Situation Report on Media Literacy, Disinformation & Misinformation in the Caribbean” covers eight Caribbean nations – the Bahamas, Barbados, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Suriname, and Trinidad & Tobago – and examines each country’s relationship with media and information literacy, disinformation, and trust in news. In each country, research was undertaken over a period of five months. Separately, research was conducted by ACM to determine the feasibility of a regional trusted news network.

It was produced in partnership with the Association of Caribbean Media Workers (ACM) and the Media Institute of the Caribbean (MIC), and with support from the UNESCO Cluster Office for the Caribbean and UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC).

Key findings from the report:

  • Unique challenges: No two country was exactly the same and the report highlights the unique challenges of each researched country, as well as the similarities across borders.
  • The need for more regional research: Notably, the situation report emphasises that more analysis is needed across the region to tackle disinformation, media literacy, and trust in news media.
  • Barriers remain: Barriers remain to achieving media literacy, particularly legislatively. Newsrooms are strapped for resources in an economically difficult environment (further exacerbated by the repercussions of the pandemic) and are working in highly competitive landscapes with pressure to report news before competitors.
  • Opportunities abound: Importantly, the report also demonstrates achievable opportunities for regional media organisations and governments.

This research report is part of a wider project implemented by the PMA and our regional partners, MIC and ACM. It is supported by the UNESCO Cluster Office for the Caribbean and UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC). Read more about the project here.

Download the situation report:

Action Plan: Combatting misinformation and disinformation for Caribbean media workers


The Public Media Alliance is pleased to release our latest publication: an eight-point action plan geared at supporting the Caribbean media landscape in their promotion of media and information literacy and their fight against disinformation.

This eight-point action plan charts the course for more robust efforts to tackle both misinformation and disinformation while committing to media literacy for all, with the goal of rebuilding trust in news media.

It is part of a wider project spearheaded by the Public Media Alliance, titled “Developing a Situation Report & Action Plan on Media and Information Literacy and Disinformation in the Caribbean”.

The plan incorporates key points raised by regional media stakeholders as part of PMA’s research and feedback. The plan not only benefited from consultations from both media professionals and media owners/managers, but also from months-long research conducted in several Caribbean territories. Key points include:

  • The need for strengthened and increased collaboration among regional journalists, media associations, and media houses.
  • The importance of launching a public awareness campaign aimed at empowering audiences on how to spot mis- and disinformation.
  • A commitment to train and develop the region’s journalists.

The project and this resulting action plan were organised by the Public Media Alliance with support from UNESCO Cluster Office for the Caribbean and UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communications and were developed in partnership with the Association of Caribbean Media Workers (ACM) and the Media Institute of the Caribbean (MIC).  We extend our thanks to our project facilitators, Ms. Kiran Maharaj of MIC and Ms. Nazima Raghubir of ACM, for their invaluable support and input and for overseeing key project elements. Special thanks are also extended to our workshop trainers and participants.

Download eight-point action plan:

Code of Conduct: Crisis Management Plan for Journalists and Media in Haiti


The Public Media Alliance is pleased to release our latest code of conduct, this time aimed at media professionals in Haiti.

As part of our project, “Protecting journalists in Haiti and confronting dis- and misinformation during a pandemic”, the Public Media Alliance has developed a French-language crisis management code of conduct for Haitian media professionals to better enable them to report ethically and responsibly on crises and disasters, while ensuring their own safety.

This code was developed using feedback from 30 journalists and media stakeholders in Haiti who participated in virtual training sessions in March 2022 as part of our project.

The code of conduct on crisis management covers:

  • Holding power to account through ethical journalism
  • Ensuring the safety of journalists in times of crisis
  • Countering disinformation through ethical practices, quality journalism, and the promotion of media literacy

The project and this resulting code of conduct were organised by the Public Media Alliance with the support of our local partner Panos Caribbean, the UNESCO Haiti Office, and the Rapid Response Mechanism of the International Program for the Development of Communications (IPDC). We extend our thanks to Mr. Jean Claude Louis, Coordinator of Panos Caribbean, for his invaluable input and support throughout this project. Special thanks are also extended to our workshop trainers and participants and other local organisations who contributed to additional project elements.

Download Code of Conduct:

Impact of COVID-19 on media freedom, journalist safety and media viability in Southeast Asia


The Public Media Alliance’s new research report gives a timely insight into the key impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the media across nine countries in Southeast Asia. Its accompanying draft Media Recovery Plan responds to the key challenges.

The report illustrates the strain news organisations have been under in recent years. For example, they have been forced to accelerate their move to providing more extensive digital services due to various lockdown restrictions; financial pressures imposed by the pandemic have occurred against a backdrop of broader threats to media freedom and the safety of journalists; and several laws purporting to combat the spread of disinformation and misinformation were introduced across the region.

The draft Media Recovery Plan concentrates on the key areas to be addressed in order to create a sustainable media environment, one which enables the media and journalists to work independently and collaboratively during a time of crisis such as COVID-19.

Recommendations include: 

  • Building strong partnerships between media organisations to produce high quality and cost-effective content
  • Establishing a regional (non-governmental) forum to cover welfare, safety, and the freedom of journalists
  • Strengthening coordination and communication between states (with respect to media)
  • Supporting improved digital media literacy
  • Analysing the impact of digitalisation, especially the impact of social media


This important and timely project was organised by the Public Media Alliance, in collaboration with our local partner, the Asia Democracy Network (ADN), and with support from the UNESCO Bangkok Office and the rapid response mechanism of the International Programme for the Development of Communications (IPDC). We extend our gratitude to our project facilitators, Laxman Datt Pant, Chairperson of Media Action Nepal, and Tess Bacalla, Project Lead and Editor in Chief of the Asia Democracy Chronicles. Special thanks are also extended to our research contributors.

Download the Research Report:

Download the draft Media Recovery Plan:

Code of Conduct: Improving conflict sensitive reporting & journalist safety in South Asia


In September 2021, 30 journalists from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka gathered virtually to strengthen the capacity of the South Asian media environment in terms of conflict sensitive reporting, journalist safety, and self-regulation.

The participants – from journalists to academics and editors – worked collaboratively to develop a regionally relevant Code of Conduct that will act as a strategy document to advise journalists and media workers across the region on how they can cover pertinent areas in an informed, fair, and safe manner. 

Among the areas covered by the Code of Conduct are: 

  • Minimising risks to communal harmony through an intersectional and impartial journalism 
  • Human rights and gendered approaches to reporting 
  • Confidentiality of reliable sources 
  • Recommendations for further improvements

This important and timely project was organised by the Public Media Alliance, with support from our local partner Media Action Nepal, the UNESCO New Delhi Office, and the UNESCO International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC). We extend our thanks to our workshop facilitators, Mr. Laxman Datt Pant, Chairperson of Media Action Nepal, and Dr. Sadia Jamil, UAE Country Representative of the Asian Media Information and Communication Centre. Special thanks are also extended to our South Asian fellows and media stakeholders from Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Sri Lanka. 

Download Code of Conduct:

News in Asia


Understanding news media in the world’s most important region 

In September 2021, the Judith Neilson Institute published its ‘News in Asia’ report, bringing together experts and institutions to provide a nuanced account of journalism across the continent. The report comprehensively covers a broad range of topics, from changing news production and consumption to the impact of COVID-19 on the news media landscape and media development.

The Public Media Alliance is proud to have also contributed to this important and timely project. In our chapter, News of the nation: The transformation of national broadcasting, we explore the changing role of national broadcasters in Asia with a slide towards greater state control, and how remaining public service media are being redefined and normalised as a form of national broadcasting with less editorial independence.

Read our chapter

Social Media Guidelines | For media professionals & journalists in Southern Africa


In June 2019, twenty-four journalists and media makers from the Southern African region (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Seychelles, South Africa and Zimbabwe) gathered in Windhoek, Namibia, to strengthen the capacity of media in their region by creating and adopting a clear plan on the use of social media in news and broadcasting.

They worked collaboratively to develop these detailed, regionally relevant guidelines on aspects of social media coverage that they could use within their organisations. These guidelines were also produced to strengthen the role of the media in Southern Africa and promote the positive use of social media within newsrooms and media organisations.

These guidelines:

  • Cover activities on a media organisation’s social media sites and external sites by journalists and employees of the organisation.
  • Exist to ensure that your social media output is as good as it can be and does not do anyone any harm.
  • Serve to protect employees as well as the organisations they work for to facilitate responsible journalism.

This important project and guidelines was run by the Public Media Alliance with support and funding from UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), UNESCO Harare and UNESCO Namibia. Our thanks to the workshop trainers Emily-May Brown, Senior Lecturer at the Namibia University of Science and Technology (NUST) and Robert Freeman, trainer in social media and digital journalism at the BBC College of Journalism.

Download Guidelines

Guidelines | Reporting Hate Speech, Terrorism & Violence in South East Asia


In March 2019, a group of journalists, media managers and press regulators from five countries in the Asia-Pacific region [Indonesia, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Philippines and Malaysia] met in Kuala Lumpur.

They came together to collaboratively develop a set of guidelines to assist journalists covering hate speech, acts of violence and terrorism across the region. In doing so

Each set of guidelines begins by defining ‘hate speech’, ‘acts of violence’ and ‘terrorism’ respectively. It is important to establish such definitions before developing guidelines on how journalists and media professionals should respond to such situations.

These guidelines are divided into three sections, as there are specific considerations for each scenario, although some of the key principles are applicable in all three situations.

In interpreting these guidelines, consideration must be given to context, editorial justification, freedom of expression, public interest and the capacity of media.

This Action Plan workshop was organised by the Public Media Alliance (PMA) in collaboration with the Ethical Journalism Network (EJN) and with the support of the UNESCO’s  International Programme for the Development of Communication prorgamme.

Download Guidelines

Funding Public Media


“In a rapidly changing global media landscape there is growing uncertainty regarding the sustainability of income and funding levels for Public Service Broadcasters and Public Service Media”

These are the timely words written by the Public Media Alliance’s Finance Manager, Mervyn Warner, as many public media organisations seek to find new funding models in an attempt to future proof their financial sustainability. This is also the basis for Mervyn’s latest report, which offers vital insight into current funding models, the risks associated with them, and their potential for the future.

The original BBC model of a direct licence fee, payable by anyone owning and using specific broadcast receiving equipment, is transparent and demands accountability. This direct link between the public and the public media organisation has often been seen as fundamental to the ethos of PSM. But we need to ask if it is still fit for purpose at a time when people are increasingly interacting with public media via multiple platforms and devices.

Public media has evolved considerably worldwide as a response to different national contexts. The way that it is funded has also been adapted and changed. But despite the differences in funding and governance models, PMA is working to highlight and advocate for the shared values of public media. At a time when trust in the media is at an all-time low, these common values need promoting. They underpin democracy and are fundamental to rebuilding public confidence and trust.

To survive and thrive, public media needs secure and stable funding. In an increasingly crowded digital media space, public media needs to change to maintain political and public funding support. It is perhaps time to engage in a critical debate about what is essential and realistic in terms of funding for public media.

This Insight report draws upon Mervyn’s years of experience in media finance and offers a useful reference point for public media organisations to reflect on their current funding models and develop ideas to secure their long term sustainability.

Download Report

Raw data used in this report can be found via the links below (PDF):

Webinar | Developing guidelines & codes of conduct to report hate speech and acts of terror for South East Asia


Watch our latest webinar, which explores the need to develop detailed guidelines on aspects of hate speech, violence and terrorism coverage for South East Asia that deal with language, significance, and context as well as accuracy and balance. This webinar was delivered by Paul Risley, Senior Communications Officer for East Asia and the Pacific at The World Bank, in partnership with UNESCO, the Ethical Journalism Network and the Asia-Pacific Broadcasting Union.


Understanding and defining hate speech & misconceptions in South East Asia

The role of new technologies and social media in media practice when reporting hate speech and acts of terror

The importance of developing relevant guidelines or codes of conduct to report hate speech and acts of terror

The importance of language and visuals when reporting hate speech and acts of terror

Watch Webinar

PMA Global Conference 2018 | Presentations


Explore some of the in-depth presentations from PMA18 on the theme “Speak Out! Rebuilding Trust in Media & Democracy”, which took place in Jamaica on 13 August 2018. The event brought together PMA members, journalists and public media thought leaders from around the world to discuss solutions to some of the key issues facing public media and public interest media worldwide.

Explore Presentations

Reporting Hate Speech & Violence in the Caribbean 


In August 2018, a group of journalists and media professionals from across the Caribbean came together in Jamaica to discuss and create an action plan on hate speech and media coverage of violence for the region. The action plan was developed with the regional media landscape in mind, with participants using their local and personal experience to inform its development and ensure its relevance for the Caribbean context.

Social Media Guidelines for Media Professionals & Journalists in the Caribbean


These new Social Media Guidelines were initially developed during a three-day workshop, supported by the UNESCO Caribbean Cluster Office, with inputs and feedback from media professionals and organisations in the Caribbean. The hope is that the guidelines will help new and existing broadcasters in the Caribbean to identify the essential ways in which public service broadcasting and its characteristics can be preserved and strengthened, within the context of emerging technologies and social platforms.

Download PDF


The aim of INFORM is to provide a bridge between the academic analysis of Public Service Broadcasting and the views and experience of senior managers working within the industry. This issue places focus on media leadership in times of crisis, disaster and emergency.

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New World View

This 2013 report by Charlotte Jenner and John McCarthy examines the key role PSBs play in providing citizens with reliable and engaging international coverage, and how this content can empower audiences to make informed democratic choices. Research includes interviews with heads of PSBs, journalism academics and development experts.

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Reviewing the World

A review by Martin Scott, Charlotte Jenner and Rosie Smith of the WorldView project, international coverage and the UK media industry. A detailed impact study of a project that has worked to address barriers to media coverage of developing countries for over a decade through the seed-funding of documentaries.

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Brave New World Service

The 2011 report looks into the future of the BBC World Service, prior to some of the largest funding cuts and institutional changes in its history. By John McCarthy with Charlotte Jenner.

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A Road Map to Public Service Broadcasting

This 2012 book by Elizabeth Smith looks at countries that have established PSB or are in the process, to provide best practice and guidance for regions embarking on transition. It aims to open minds to the new opportunities offered to broadcasters by digital switchover to lead the way into interactive public service media. 

Download PDF

Commonwealth Election Broadcasting

A set of guidelines drawn from a workshop held by the CBA and Commonwealth Secretariat with senior broadcasters from all over the Commonwealth. It upholds the ideal that all broadcast outlets, large or small, rich or poor have a public service duty to contribute to free and fair elections in any way they can.

Download PDF

Covering Elections in Small States

This report by Mary Raine focuses on the way in which elections are covered by broadcasters in small countries and the extent to which the journalistic principles of accuracy, integrity and objectivity are upheld. 

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Editorial Guidelines

Now in its fourth edition, this handbook by Mary Raine is designed to help broadcasters identify and adopt good practices that ensure sound coverage by the media which operate freely and fairly.

Download PDF

Guidelines for Broadcasters on Promoting UGC and Media and Information Literacy

How broadcasters around the world can encourage audiences to produce better quality user-generated content and to improve media and information literacy. By Martin Scott

Download PDF

Guidelines for Broadcasting Regulation

Supported by Unesco, this second edition is by Eve Salomon, an international media consultant specialising in broadcasting and press regulation and a former Director of Legal Services at the UK Radio Authority.

Download PDF

Handbook on Radio and Television Audience Research

Written by Graham Mytton, this handbook was published by Unicef and Unesco, and is a useful guide to the principles and practice of audience research.

Download PDF

Maximising Income and Controlling Costs in Small and Medium Broadcasting Operations

This handbook covers ways to maximise income and discusses various income streams, corporate planning, marketing plans and an in-depth look at budgeting. Lastly the author Mano Wilkramanayake looks at controlling costs with a detailed sample budget.

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Media Literacy from the Perspective of Broadcasters and User-generated Content Producers Around the World

This report is based on a survey of 32 broadcasters around the world, focusing on their policies around three aspects of media literacy. By Lisa Stribbling and Martin Scott.

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Media Management Manual

A handbook for television and radio practitioners in countries undergoing digital transition. By John Prescott Thomas. 

Download PDF

Performance Measurement

A practical guide to key performance indicators and benchmarking in public broadcasting, by Fulvio Barbuio.

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Reflecting the Real World?

Research by Joe Smith, Lucy Edge and Vanessa Morris on how British TV portrayed developing countries in 2005

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The World in Focus

How UK audiences connected with the wider world and the international news content in 2009, researched and written by Martin Scott

Download PDF

Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge (Swedish)

Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge

Published: June 2022

“The purpose of Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge is to present in an easily accessible way what empirical research has come to in key issues concerning public service. The chapter authors are active at Swedish universities and colleges, and most of the results and conclusions presented are based on reviews of previously published research. In all chapters, the focus is on public service news journalism.

Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge is aimed at anyone with an interest in public service – not least politicians, journalists and public debaters.”

[Text sourced from Nordicom]

Download report (Swedish)

Ukraine protests Warsaw

Resources for Media Workers Covering the Conflict in Ukraine

The Public Media Alliance team has compiled a list of recommended tools and resources for journalists and media organisations covering the fast-developing war in Ukraine. It includes links and guides on conflict reporting, financial assistance and journalist safety. This resource will be updated regularly.

Updated: 25 March 2022

Explore our other relevant tools pages, including Fact Checking & Investigative Journalism Tools and Refugee crises and migration reporting.

Featured resource

Lviv Press Freedom Center

Reporters without Borders (RSF) and its local Ukrainian partner, the Institute for Mass Information (IMI) have launched a press freedom center in Lviv, Western Ukraine, that will provide vital physical and digital assistance for journalists working under dangerous conditions in Ukraine. Journalists will be offered protective equipment such as bulletproof vests and helmets; the center itself can also be used as a place for shelter in the event of an attack. They will also be offered information and advice on financial and psychological assistance.

Foreign journalists can also work from the Center between 8am and 8pm where they will have access to internet connection and live-streaming capacities.

CAN YOU HELP? RSF is calling on international donors and media outlets to contact RSF to help provide funds and equipment needed to supply the Center.

Header Image: Warsaw, Poland. 24 February 2022. Anti-war protest outside Russian embassy in Warsaw. Demonstrators call for peace and condemn Putin. Credit: Grand Warszawski /

Funding Democracy: Public Media and Democratic Health in 33 Countries

Funding Democracy: Public Media and Democratic Health in 33 Countries

The International Journal of Press/Politics | Timothy Neff and Victor Pickard
Published: 2021

Neff and Pickard’s new report provides further evidence that where public media is better funded, with secure funding and regulatory frameworks, they are “consistently and positively correlated with healthy democracies”, and that citizens are more likely to engage in democratic processes. The study is based on a framework by Hallin and Mancini of North American and European media systems, and in correlation with the rankings of the 33 countries in the top two tiers of The 2019 Democracy Index (“full” and “flawed” democracies), developed by The Economist’s Intelligence Unit (EIU).

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The Contribution of NRK to Norwegian Media Diversity

The Contribution of NRK to Norwegian Media Diversity

A review from The Norwegian Media Authority to the Ministry of Culture 

Published: November 2021

Front cover of summary report 'The Contribution of NRK to Norwegian Media Diversity' Credit: Medietilsynet
Front cover of summary report ‘The Contribution of NRK to Norwegian Media Diversity’ Credit: Medietilsynet

“In a report published on 29 November 2021, the Norwegian Media Authority (NMA) concludes that the public service media provider NRK contributes positively to media diversity and to the overall offer to the public by fulfilling its public service broadcasting remit and by working with other actors in the Norwegian media market. A detailed summary of the report is now available in English.

The objective of the report, commissioned by the Ministry of Culture, was to identify how NRK contributes to diversity of content and exposure, whether it fulfils its duty to cover thematic and geographic blind spots and how the competitive effects of its activities impact on the media market. on online news and current affairs.

The review is based on the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data and studies from a wide range of sources including NRK, public authorities, consultants and academic researchers and takes into consideration input from the media industry.”

[Text sourced from the European platform of regulatory authorities]

Download report