Finding the funds for journalism to thrive

Finding the funds for journalism to thrive

Policy options to support media viability

UNESCO | Dr. Anya Schiffrin, Prof. Emily Bell, Dr. Julie Posetti & Francesca Edgerton
Published: 2022

“This brief comes as part of the UNESCO series World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development. The brief addresses how policymakers can best respond to the severe financial crisis threatening the supply of independent journalism. It provides a typology of global responses, assesses their pros and cons, and makes 22 actionable recommendations. It builds on the Windhoek+30 Declaration, which underlines media viability as a core principle of information as a public good.”

[Text sourced from UNESCO]

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Covid-TV: Routes to Content during Covid-19


Routes to Content during Covid-19

University of Huddersfield | Prof. Catherine Johnson
Published: 2020

What does the impact of Covid-19 on TV viewing tell us about the future of public service broadcasting (PSB) in the UK?

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A comparative analysis of media freedom & pluralism in the EU member states


This study was commissioned by the European Parliament’s Policy Department for Citizens’ Rights and Constitutional Affairs at the request of the LIBE Committee.

The authors argue that democratic processes in several EU countries are suffering from systemic failure, with the result that the basic conditions of media pluralism are not present, and, at the same time, that the distortion in media pluralism is hampering the proper functioning of democracy. The study offers a new approach to strengthening media freedom and pluralism, bearing in mind the different political and social systems of the Member States. The authors propose concrete, enforceable and systematic actions to correct the deficiencies found.


Ofcom 2015

Ofcom: Public Service Broadcasting in the Internet Age

Ofcom 2015This document, produced by the independent British broadcasting regulator, sets out its conclusions from its third review into public service broadcasting in the UK.

It assesses the performance of the PSB system as a whole and the potential challenges it faces in the future. It also looks to the methods that could be employed to maintain and strengthen PSB across the UK.

The report is published alongside various additions and annexes which assess PSB in each of the UK’s regions and nations specifically. These can be found here.


New Zealand: Children’s Media Use Study

screen-shot-2016-10-04-at-15-22-35“How our children engage with media today”

This research produced by New Zealand’s Broadcasting Standards Authority elucidates to the changing use of media platforms by the country’s 6-14 year olds.

The paper finds that television is still the dominant format for children although the use of tablets and smartphones is rapidly rising. It states that this age range is the biggest differentiator in media behaviour, with usage evolving as the child grows older. However, there is a clear tipping point at the age of 11 when the use of Youtube and social media rise dramatically.

The report also highlights differences between social setting, background and ethnicity in the use of different media platforms, the level of exposure and content preferences.


CRTC: Broadcasting Regulatory Policy 2015

“The way forward – creating compelling and diverse Canadian programming”

Published in 2015, this regulatory policy paper by the Canadian Radio-Television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC) sets out the Commission’s findings on ways to build a future Canadian television system that encourages the creation of compelling and diverse programming made by Canadians.

The report looks to build on the current strengths of the Canadian television industry and take it into the future; ensuring its ability to develop alongside changing audience viewing habits and the growing use of on-demand services.


The Australian Communications and Media Authority

The ACMA is Australia’s broadcasting, internet, radio communications and telecommunications regulator. Their intention is to make “media and communications work for all Australians“.

The role of the ACMA is diverse, from online safety courses for children and parents to conducting research on the Australian media communications environment to inform decision makers. Away from education and research, the ACMA also manage Australia’s radio frequency spectrum, ensuring that it is equipped for the continuing pressures rapidly growing ownership of mobile internet devices.

As regulators, the AMCA is responsible for investigating codes of conduct and practice both on an individual and organisational level. This includes combatting the misuse of content, abuse and producing guidelines that help to protect consumer and citizen rights.

The links below take you to two of the ACMA’s most recent reports. ‘The Communications Report 2014-2015‘ reports on the “performance of carriers and carriage service providers, including consumer satisfaction, consumer benefits and quality of service“, whilst the inaugural ‘ACMA snapshot‘ (September quarter, 2015) offers an overview of the ACMA’s “broad and diverse” regulatory activities.

Communication Report 2014-2015

AMCA Snapshot: September 2015

Germany: Interstate Treaty on Broadcasting and Telemedia

This treaty is a great example of how to implement a funding transition and regulatory changes within a federal State.

Written by Germany’s Die Medienanstalten (the corporation representing all state media authorities in Germany), this 2019 version of the Interstate treaty contains the principal regulatory framework for public-service and commercial broadcasting in a dual broadcasting system of Germany’s federal states. It also takes into account the development of the broadcasting sector in Europe.