Our weekly round-up of public service media related stories and headlines from around the world.

Click on the drop-down menus below to reveal the latest regional stories.

ALGERIA: The bedlam of Algerian audiovisual (Opinion – French)

Le Matin Algérie: Beyond the media event created by the “hidden camera” of a private television channel, which will carry a heavy load of controversy, it is worth noting that the Algerian audiovisual sector is struggling to achieve, or at least to mature, its configuration that will make its landscape have contour, color and dimension.

CAMEROON: CRTV, the Cameroonian public television is getting ready to broadcast via internet

Business in Cameroon: Charles Ndongo, Managing Director (MD) of the public Cameroonian broadcasting channel, CRTV, just launched a national open call for tenders for the implementation of an internet TV streaming solution.

EGYPT: Egypt’s Government Can’t Crush Independent Journalism (Opinion)

The New York Times

EGYPT: Groups condemn the government’s blocking of 21 websites

Index on Censorship: On Wednesday 24 May 2017, Egypt banned at least 21 websites, including the main website of Qatar-based Al Jazeera television, The Huffington Post and prominent local independent news site Mada Masr.

GAMBIA: Journalists Task Govt. to Appoint Press Officers in Embassies, Ministries

Via All Africa: As part of the recommendations made at the recently concluded National Stakeholders Forum on Justice and Human Rights, Gambian journalists have proposed that press officers be appointed at all ministries and embassies in fulfillment of their promised to press freedom and access to information.

KENYA: Rights groups put Kenya govt on the spot over rising attacks on journalists

The East African: The media in Kenya is increasingly finding it difficult to conduct its operations due to rising threats from government.

LESOTHO: Major Lesotho radio station taken off air hours before elections

African Independent: One of Lesotho’s most prominent commercial radio stations has been taken off air just hours before polls open on Saturday, in what critics view as a move to stifle anti-government information.

MOROCCO: Declaration on Media Freedom in the Arab World Signed in Morocco

IFJ: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) on 30 May hailed the signature in Morocco of the Arab Declaration on Media Freedom which took place during an event jointly organised on 23 May by the Conseil national des droits de l’Homme (CNDH) Morocco’s national Human rights council  and the Syndicat national de la presse marocaine (SNPM).

NIGERIA: PTCIJ Launches Press Attack Tracker to Monitor Attacks On Nigerian Journalists

Premium Times: The Premium Times Centre for Investigative Journalism, PTCIJ, has launched a Press Attack tracker as part of its strategic vision of ensuring freedom of expression and its fight against press gagging.

RWANDA: Diplomats concerned over Rwanda social media controls

News24: Western diplomats in Rwanda voiced their concern on Tuesday over an order that presidential candidates must submit their social media messages to the country’s election commission for pre-approval before dissemination.

RWANDA: Rwanda poll body can’t curb social media use: regulator

New Vision: Rwanda’s media regulator has said the election body does not have the mandate to regulate social media use by presidential candidates, a measure seen as an assault on free speech.

SENEGAL: Senegalese rappers make news with a beat

Columbia Journalism Review:

SOMALIA: IFJ condemns “farcical” threatened prosecution of journalists’ leader

IFJ: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) today voiced serious concerns over “farcical” attempts to prosecute the head  of its affiliate, the National Union of Somali Journalists (NUSOJ), after he spoke out against government policies on press freedom and journalists’ rights.

UGANDA: Freedom of Expression a Must for Sustainable Development (Opinion)

The Monitor: The Norwegian Ambassador writes about the challenges facing freedom of expression in Uganda and the necessity of public debate and dialogue in fostering sustainable development.

ZIMBABWE: ZBC Workers Fume As Union Leaders ‘Bribed’ By Management

Via All Africa: Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation (ZBC) workers are up in arms with their union leaders after they were allegedly rewarded with thousands of dollars for pressing management over back-pay.

GENERAL: Moving past “Afro-pessimism”

Radio New Zealand: New Zealand media scholar Melanie Bunce finds the world’s media are slowly getting past stereotypes of death, disease, corruption and poverty that have characterised coverage of Africa in the past. But much of what’s happening across Africa still remains absent in our news media.

GENERAL: Push for African TV’s digital migration to close the divide

IOL: For more than a decade digital broadcasting has been touted to revolutionise the African audiovisual and telecoms landscape. But the pace of this revolution has been so sluggish many have forgotten the promise of this new technology.

AFGHANISTAN: The female journalists defying taboos and braving death threats in Afghanistan

The Guardian: The country’s first female-run radio station was looted and its staff persecuted but, despite the risks, women in the media are making their voices heard.

BANGLADESH: Spread of fake news ‘can lead to more violence’ in Bangladesh

Strait Times: The editor and publisher of the largest-circulation English language newspaper in Bangladesh, The Daily Star, says the spread of fake news poses real dangers and could incite even more violence in a country that is already experiencing a spike in bloodshed.

CAMBODIA: The fresh prince of Cambodian media

Southeast Asia Globe: Lim Cheavutha stole Cambodia’s media crown when he launched Fresh News. His story reflects stark changes in the ways Cambodians get their news – and who delivers it.

CHINA: Internet access blocked on Tiananmen Square anniversary

IFJ: On June 4, the anniversary of Tiananmen Square, social media users across China found access to WeChat, a social media platform, limited and almost impossible to use.

CHINA: China: Still World’s Biggest Prison for Journalists and Citizen-Journalists

The News Lens: Twenty-eight years after the ruthless crackdown on pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square on June 4, 1989, China’s prisons currently hold more than 100 journalists, citizen-journalists and bloggers, including a Nobel peace laureate and three winners of the RSF-TV5 Monde Press Freedom Prize.

KYRGYZSTAN: Kyrgyzstan: Lawmaker Proposes Stripping Reporter of Citizenship

Eurasianet: A lawmaker in Kyrgyzstan has devised a new threat for journalists whose writing is not the public’s liking — stripping them of their citizenship.

INDIA: All India Radio must tap ad potential of FM radio (Opinion)

LiveMint: With All India Radio’s penetration and reach, the broadcaster should have been ideally placed to exploit its FM channels commercially.

INDIA: Indian media wants Dalit news but not Dalit reporters (Opinion)

AlJazeera: Caste privilege and domination in newsrooms must end.

INDIA: Indian investigators raid premises linked to NDTV founders

The Guardian: Investigators have raided a number of premises linked to the founders of a Indian TV news network in a move described by prominent journalists as an assault on press freedom.

INDIA: Indian media facing a crisis of credibility

Deutsche Welle: Journalism in India is facing a serious crisis. The mainstream media is increasingly vested in the hands of a select few and refuses to question authority. Murali Krishnan from New Delhi examines this disturbing trend.

INDIA: Indian soap tackles taboos to become one of world’s most watched

The Guardian: Over 400m people watch show, with storyline including acid attacks, domestic violence and abortion of female foetuses.

INDIA: Raids in India Target Founders of News Outlet Critical of Government

The New York Times:  India’s main investigative agency on Monday raided residences and offices connected to the founders of NDTV, an influential cable TV station that has had run-ins with Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s government over its news coverage.

INDIA: Shashi Shekhar Vempati to take charge as Prasar Bharati CEO

LiveMint: Shashi Shekhar Vempati, the former head of online media firm Niti Digital, will be first non-IAS officer to head Prasar Bharati , which runs Doordarshan and All India Radio

MYANMAR: One year under Suu Kyi, press freedom lags behind democratic progress


PAKISTAN: Journalist escapes ‘abduction bid’ in Islamabad

Dawn: A local broadcast journalist escaped a suspected abduction attempt in Islamabad on Friday night, according to a complaint filed with police, a day after a Pakistani journalist associated with an Iranian news agency was tortured and injured in the capital.

PAKISTAN: Pemra suspends action against TV channels

The News: In compliance with the orders of the Supreme Court of Pakistan, Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (Pemra) has suspended action on violations of Ramazan guidelines by some TV channels.


GMFD: The Commonwealth Press Union Media Trust (CPU) has presented the annual Astor Award to the Pakistan Press Foundation (PPF), a member of the GFMD.

SOUTH KOREA: South Korea Has Already Embraced Live Streaming

eMarketer: While live streaming has taken some time to gain steam on platforms like Facebook in the US, the practice is already widespread in South Korea.

AUSTRALIA: Australia proposes broadcast and content reform package

Advanced Television: Australia’s Government has announced a comprehensive package of reforms that it says will improve the sustainability of Australia’s free-to-air broadcasting sector, protect children from exposure to gambling advertising and support the creation of high quality Australian content.

AUSTRALIA: Change ABC charter so kids get the real story

The Australian: The ABC’s charter should be amended to include for the first time, a specific obligation that it delivers “minimum amounts” of Australian programming on its kids’ channels, according to a bombshell new report.

AUSTRALIA: How the newspapers tried to kill an independent ABC news before it even began (Analysis)

ABC News: This week, the ABC marks the 70th anniversary of its first truly independent news bulletin — but it almost never made it to air.

AUSTRALIA: NSW Government backs new ABC series Employable Me

DeciderTV: The series has been commissioned as part of the ABC’s commitment to bring diverse stories, including those about people with disabilities, into focus on the national broadcaster.

NEW ZEALAND: Ad-free content for kids to go online

Radio New Zealand: A publicly-funded online platform for commercial-free children’s programmes and content will launch in 2018. Mediawatch says it’s a response to modern kids’ new media habits, but also our broadcasters’ lack of interest in their youngest viewers – and it won’t reach all Kiwi kids.

TIMOR-LESTE: Victory for press freedom: Timor journalists spared from jail

IFJ: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ) joins its affiliates the Timor Leste Press Union (TLPU) and the Timor Leste Journalists Association (TLJA) in welcoming the decision today by the Timor Leste judiciary to dismiss charges against two journalists charged with slanderous denunciation.

TONGA: Injunction against Tonga broadcaster due Friday (2 June)

RNZ: A hearing into whether the sacked head of Tonga’s state broadcaster can continue in her job until a judicial review of the move is heard, will take place on Friday.

TONGA: TBC case not about media freedom – chairman

RNZ: The chairman of Tonga’s state broadcaster says a case being brought against them by the dismissed general manager Nanise Fifita has nothing to do with media freedom.

ALBANIA: Albanian Broadcaster Strives for Neutral Stance in Election

Balkan Insight: Albania’s public broadcaster, RTSH, long seen as the biased mouthpiece of governments, seems to be making a real effort to behave more professionally during this election campaign.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: Call on BiH authorities to save national public service media

EFJ: The Bosnia and Herzegovina public service broadcaster (BHRT), the EFJ affiliate, the Bosnia -Herzegovina Journalists Association (BHN), the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), the European Federation of Journalists (EFJ), and the South East Europe Media Organisation (SEEMO) call on Bosnia and Herzegovina authorities to undertake urgent measures to save national public service media (PSM) in BiH.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: International Community Unite in Effort to Save PSM in Bosnia And Herzegovina

EBU: The international community are coming together in Bosnia and Herzegovina this June in last-ditch attempt to save public service media (PSM) in the country.

BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: The Future of Public Service Broadcasting in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Article)

Analitika: This paper probes the future prospects for PSB in BiH by looking at the developmental path of PSB and its current situation, taking into consideration complex contextual challenges.

GERMANY: ARD broadcaster uses ATEME headend to service its DVB-T2 and OTT services

Videonet: Hessischer Rundfunk, one of the ARD members, a public broadcaster in Germany, has deployed ATEME’s compression and statistical multiplexing solutions for its DVB-T2 and OTT services.

FRANCE: France’s longest-serving TV anchor sacked by state broadcaster

The Guardian: France Télévisions denies David Pujadas’s departure is linked to election of new president Emmanuel Macron.

FRANCE: Public mediators: how info referees work (French)

France Culture: For the first time, Francophone public media mediators met in Paris to discuss their experiences. The opportunity to better understand how Swiss, Belgians and Canadians create links with their listeners and viewers, and how they view the French system.

FRANCE: The Franceinfo network should turn to the “breaking news” (French – Subscription)

Le Figaro: Yannick Letranchant, new information director at France Télévisions, and Vincent Giret, new director of France Info, will open this working site for the start of the school year.

KOSOVO: Kosovo Media Accuse PDK of Unfair Election Airtime Demand

Balkan Insight: The dominant PDK-led coalition is blatantly demanding much more airtime on pre-election TV debates than it deserves, raising claims of pressures on media.

NETHERLANDS: Over half of Dutch viewers are binge-watchers

Advanced Television: Over half (57 per cent) of TV viewers in The Netherlands binge watch, viewing multiple episodes of a TV show in rapid succession, according to a study from Telecompaper’s Consumer Panel.

RUSSIA: The News of Eastern Europe: Brought to You by Russia

SEENPM: For ten years, the Russian government has built media across eastern Europe. They are becoming a fearsome player in the region’s media market.

SERBIA: Reporters attacked during new Serbian president’s inauguration

RSF: Reporters Without Borders (RSF) condemns the violence by government supporters against journalists in central Belgrade yesterday as the police looked on without intervening. The journalists were there to cover the swearing-in of Serbia’s new president, Aleksandar Vucic.

SPAIN: Jon Ariztimuño: “We must be as plural as Madrid’s society” (Spanish)

Telemadrid: Radio Televisión Madrid begins a new phase. A new management team consisting of five women and three men, will be responsible for the programming and the chain’s change of image.

SPAIN: The parties advance in the negotiation for the renovation of RTVE (Spanish)

El País: On June 22 Congress will vote on the proposal for a law that forces consensus.

SWITZERLAND: Pascal Crittin: “More than a public service, RTS is a public good” (French)

Les Médias Francophones: On 1 May, Pascal Crittin succeeded Gilles Marchand as Director of Radio Télévision Suisse (RTS). He speaks here about the difficult political and institutional context in Switzerland for public broadcasting.

UK: BBC First extends Dutch distribution

TBI Vision: BBC Worldwide is upping the distribution of BBC First in the Netherlands after agreeing a deal with TV, internet and phone provider Caiway.

UK: BBC to stream election debate on Twitter

Advanced Television: The BBC’s election debate on May 31st  will be streamed live on Twitter as well as broadcast on television.  It marks the first partnership of its kind between the social network and the BBC.

UK: Ex-Shine chief Mahon to lead Channel 4

TBI Vision: Former Shine Group CEO Alex Mahon has landed the CEO post at UK broadcaster Channel 4.

UK: Scottish journalists voice fears over freedom of information requests

BBC: Journalists from across Scotland’s media have signed an open letter raising concerns about the way the Scottish government handles freedom of information (FoI) requests.

UK: ‘Very little about Britain’s election coverage is objective’

DW: Labour Party’s Jeremy Corbyn has come out strong in a recent TV debate ahead of the June 8 vote. But London School of Economics media expert Shakuntala Banaji tells DW Corbyn still has to battle negative media coverage.

GENERAL: Most European Newspapers Charge For Online News. Broadcasters do not (Study)

EJO: Most European newspapers and news weeklies are operating a paywall as legacy revenues continue to decline and digital advertising increasingly moves to large technology companies, a study by the Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism reveals.

BOLIVIA: With Mainstream Media Weakened in Bolivia, Social Networks Are Stepping in to Help, but Can They Do Enough?


BRAZIL: Promotion of audiovisual production on TV strengthens public media (Portuguese)

Carta Capital: In Bahia, the new TVE tender, the largest among those launched so far for television production, uses resources from the Audiovisual Sector Fund.

BRAZIL: Released recording highlights polarized atmosphere for Brazil’s political reporters

CPJ: The release of a private conversation between a well-known journalist and his source has shaken the journalistic community in Brazil and highlighted the increasingly polarized and uneasy terrain in which political reporters work.

HONDURAS: Honduras creates new ministry for human rights

Caribbean News Now!: Honduran President Juan Orlando Hernández has announced the creation of a new ministry for human rights, which will include responsibility for cases of crimes against journalists.

PARAGUAY: Paraguay says it will adopt mechanisms to protect journalists at risk

Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas: In response to allegations of 23 journalists injured during police repression of social protests in Paraguay, the government of that country announced the coming adoption of a security protocol for journalists at risk.

ST. LUCIA: Radio St Lucia closure ‘puts people second to profits’

WIC News: The government has been accused of “putting profits over people” by a former manager of Radio St Lucia.

URUGUAY: Uruguayan civil society goes to IACHR to ask the government to fully implement and enforce 2014 communication law

Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas: Civil society representatives from Uruguay called on their government to effectively implement the Law of Audiovisual Communication Services (SCA for its acronym in Spanish) and involve them in the development and implementation of the guidelines regulating it.

VENEZUELA: Groups express concern over deterioration of internet access

Index on Censorship: On 16 May the Venezuelan government issued Executive Order 2489 to extend the “state of emergency” in Venezuela, in place since May 2016. This new extension authorises internet policing and content filtering.

VENEZUELA: Opponents protest against censorship on public TV 

La Tribuna: The Venezuelan opposition resumed protests on Friday with a march in eastern Caracas, as the government moves ahead with the process of reforming the constitution amid growing criticism of dissent from the ruling party.

GENERAL: Special Rapporteur highlights best practices for jurisprudence on issues of freedom of expression in Latin America

Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas: The Office of the Special Rapporteur for Freedom of Expression of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) documented the progress of jurisprudence on freedom of expression in the Americas in its recent report, “National Case Law on Freedom of Expression.”

IRAQ: For Mosul journalists, no work or safety in post-Islamic State Iraq


ISRAEL: Fans of 88FM radio plan protest over new media authority’s changes

Times of Israel: In the three weeks since the abrupt closure of the Israel Broadcasting Authority and the switch to the new government media corporation, Kan, listeners at 88FM — a public radio station dedicated to carefully curated programs of classic rock, jazz and world music — have become an unhappy audience.

QATAR: Al Jazeera threatened by Qatar isolation

Advanced Television: Four important Arab nations have cut all diplomatic and other links with Qatar, presenting significant problems for global news channel Al Jazeera as well as its sports offshoot beIN Sports.

SAUDI ARABIA: Saudi sets pace for online, mobile video

RapidTV News: Saudi Arabian internet users top the list for accessing TV and video content online and viewing that content on their smartphones and tablets according to a 13-country study by Ampere Analysis.

TURKEY: Send a postcard to jailed journalists in Turkey

IFJ: The International Federation of Journalists (IFJ), the European Federation of Journalists (IFJ) and Türkiye Gazeteciler Sendikasi (TGS) have printed postcards with the names of the 158 journalists and media workers currently jailed in Turkey.

TURKEY: These fake ‘fact-checkers’ are peddling lies about genocide and censorship in Turkey

Poynter: These fake “fact-checkers” aim to “refute” critical stories about Turkey’s government — even when they contain verified facts.

TURKEY: TRT World to be more present in Asia and Latin America

ABU: Intelsat and Globecast have signed an agreement to distribute the English version of TRT World in HD to cable outlets in Asia and Latin America.

YEMEN: UN flight ban reduces Yemen access at critical time

IRIN: Overshadowed by Syria and Iraq, the war in Yemen has long struggled to compete for media attention. And now, just as a cholera epidemic threatens to spiral out of control, IRIN has learnt that the nominal government of Yemen and its Saudi Arabian-led backers have moved to prevent journalists and human rights workers from travelling on UN chartered flights to the capital, further reducing coverage and access at a critical moment.

GENERAL: A Marketing Strategy for Arabic Investigative Stories

Global Investigative Journalism Network: “Given the size of investigative journalism in the Arab world and the important and sensitive issues it has uncovered, the stories produced don’t often result in change and reform, or fight corruption.”

CANADA: CBC News wins 7 Digital Publishing Awards

CBC: For 2nd year in a row, CBC has taken home top honours for general excellence

CANADA: How to create a public broadcaster for Nova Scotia

Rabble: It is not a new idea — just a new approach to an old idea: how to create a public broadcaster for Nova Scotia.

CANADA: Rad, The Radio-Canada Journalism Lab (French)

Les Médias Francophones: Active on Facebook, YouTube, Instagram and Snapchat, Rad was designed to become the CBC’s journalistic content lab. Its aim is to develop new formats to deal with current affairs and society’s issues for the 18-34 age group and, beyond that, all digital citizens.

US: Climate Finally Gets TV Spotlight, But Science Experts And Advocates Are Scarce

Huffington Post: No climate scientists appeared on Fox News, MSNBC or CNN during Thursday evening’s discussion.

US: Fort Collins public radio, TV plan for proposed budget cuts

Coloradoan: The president’s proposed 2018 federal budget targets public broadcasting for potential cuts.

US: How public broadcasters are lagging behind the innovation curve of Next Gen TV (Opinion – Subscription)

Current: In working with both commercial and public broadcasters, it sometimes feels like worlds are colliding. But these days, I see those worlds diverging. A gap in technological innovation is opening between them.

US: New bill would create fund for local journalism

My Central Jersey: A bill was introduced in the state Legislature on Thursday that would create a fund to promote innovative journalism and support local journalism in New Jersey.

US: New Digital Alerting System Now Active on Ohio Public TV Stations

TVTechnology: Ohio’s 12 public television stations recently collaborated to provide a major upgrade to the state’s EAS system. The project seeks to provide IP-based redundancy for the existing alerting architecture that distributes messages to radio stations, TV stations and government alerting sites — but without involving the “last-mile” internet.

US: Newseum chief fears for future of journalism under Trump

The Guardian: Jeffrey Herbst says president’s denigration of media helps erode public trust and sets dangerous example to authoritarian regimes around the world.

US: Supporting Hawaii Public Radio’s “The Conversation”

Hawaiian Paddle Sports: From its humble beginnings in a University of Hawaii studio to a weekly audience of 199,000, Hawaii Public Radio (HPR) has brought fair and unbiased news, cultural programming, and public affairs to Hawaii’s communities for over 30 years.

Can We Make Algorithms More Accountable?

GIJN: Most Americans these days get their main news from Google or Facebook, two tools that rely heavily on algorithms. A study in 2015 showed that the way a search engine like Google selects and prioritizes search results on political candidates can have an influence on voters’ preferences.

Covering budgets: Tips for putting faces to the numbers

IJNET: Writing about budgets does not make for ‘sexy’ stories — but arguably, nothing is more important to the public.

Global Journalist: Cuba, Pakistan Among Toughest Media Environments (Listen)

KBIA: On this week’s program, a look at two of the most difficult places for independent journalism: Cuba and Pakistan.

How the State of Local News Varies (and Doesn’t) Around the World

Mediashift: The past decade has not been challenging for much of the news industry. But, in the USA,  Christopher Ali from the University of Virginia argues small local newspapers (those with a circulation of 50,000 or less) have “been able to weather a lot of the storms that have faced metro and national newspapers.”

How to report on algorithms even if you’re not a data whiz

Columbia Journalism Review

OTT and SVOD promise an exciting future for the broadcasting industry

IBC: Linear TV is “robust and alive and well” but SVOD promises an exciting future, agreed executives at the recent DTG Summit.

Reporting Terror: Media Can Tell the Story Without Targeting Muslims

EJN: The issues of terrorism, internet freedom, and hate speech have been put centre stage by the British government in the aftermath of the terror attack in London at the weekend.

Superficial, Speculative, Hysterical: Outdated Terrorism Reporting Must Change

EJO: Journalists must gain a deeper understanding of the complexities of terrorism, rather than repeat simplistic stereotypes.

The AP Stylebook now includes new guidelines on data (requesting it, scraping it, reporting on it, and publishing it)

Nieman Lab: It’s fitting that, in a year when the Panama Papers investigation won the 2017 Pulitzer Prize for explanatory reporting, the Associated Press is releasing its updated 2017 Stylebook with a new chapter on data journalism.

Trump’s possible exit from Paris agreement underscores the media’s catastrophic climate change failure during the campaign.

Media Matters: News outlets are reporting that President Donald Trump has decided to withdraw the U.S. from the Paris climate agreement. Trump’s reported decision, as well as months of media speculation about whether or not he would remain in the deal, put into stark relief the failure of major TV networks to discuss the climate implications of a Trump presidency during the election campaign.

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All PSM Weekly stories are provided for interest and their relevance to public service media issues, they do not necessarily reflect the views of the Public Media Alliance.

All headlines are sourced from their original story.

If you have any suggestions for our weekly round-ups, please email PMA at editor@publicmediaalliance.org.

Header image: Sarajevo, the home of Bosnia & Herzegovina’s public broadcaster. Credits: Michał Huniewicz/Creative Commons