Addressing AI Intelligibility in Public Service Journalism


AI ‘Everywhere and Nowhere’: Addressing the AI Intelligibility Problem in Public Service Journalism

Bronwyn Jones, Rhianne Jones, and Ewa Luger | Digital Journalism 10(10)

Based on document analysis and interviews with 14 journalists, this paper explores how artificial intelligence is deployed at BBC News, and the level of literacy and understanding that those who are using AI for journalism have of the technology.

The rising prevalence of AI and algorithms has prompted concerns about how journalists understand and engage with the technology, without compromising their professional judgement and accountability.

Ultimately, the authors recommend better strategies for organisations and better AI literacy for journalists so public service organisations can uphold their norms and values.

Read article

News Personalisation and Public Service Media: The Audience Perspective


News Personalisation and Public Service Media: The Audience Perspective in Three European Countries

Annika Sehl, Maximilian Eder | Journal Media 4(1)

News organisations are increasingly providing personalised offerings curated by algorithms. This offers a tailored experience of a broadcaster’s content, but concerns have been raised about how it conflicts with public media values of universality of access, reach and content, particularly when an algorithm replaces an editor as curator.

This paper explores the opportunities and challenges, taking a look at users’ attitudes, concerns and expectations. Comparing three counties — the UK, Germany and France — it finds that some users are concerned about missing certain stories or viewpoints, though the extent of concern differs depending on each country’s media system.

Read article

PSM countering disinformation: opportunities and challenges


Opportunities and challenges of public service media organisations in countering information disorder: The Case of Nordis

Elis Karell and Minna Aslama Horowitz l Nordis

One of the key challenges that Public Service Media have to face today is the dissemination of disinformation. With the flourishing of so-called “fake news” all over social media platforms and certain media outlets, finding strategies to combat the spread of disinformation has become an important role of PSM. Based on the cases of the NORDIS countries, where PSM are known to have a strong legacy and are highly trusted by the population, this report investigates different remedies that are put into place to counter disinformation and educate citizens about this growing issue.

This study stresses out how important it is for PSM to be politically, editorially and financially independent to carry out their mission against disinformation, but also that they have to be supported by national governments and EU institutions in this fight, in terms of finance and design of policies. The conclusion to this report highlights the necessity for PSM to be allocated means that would allow them to tackle disinformation from different a front, as strong PSM are vital for a healthy national media system.

Read report

The value of public service broadcasting in Japan during Covid-19


The value of public service broadcasting in Japan during COVID-19 pandemic: An analysis of WTP by Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition

Hisanobu Kakizawa | Telecommunications Policy


The article analyses the shift in willingness to pay (WTP) for public service media (PSM) before and after the first Covid-19 outbreak in Japan. NHK Japan’s public broadcaster offered pay subscriptions to get premium services. Based on the data of the NHK survey WTP estimation was noted. During the pandemic, NHK increased public service educational and medical programmes to combat Covid-19. This led to increased WTP, the satisfaction level of viewers, and the value of journalism. The data also revealed that the WTP for PSM fell slightly as a result of the reduction in sports programmes. 

Read report

How Business Can Support a Healthy Infosphere


Investing in Facts: How the Business Community Can Support a Healthy Infosphere

Marius Dragomir | CIMA

The report emphasises the relationship between the private sector and independent media and why the private sector should care about independent media. It studies three countries’ – Czechia, Romania, and Serbia – media and business sectors, and examines how efforts have been made to counter disinformation and boost independent media. The business community in all these three regions has different reasons for supporting independent media but all of them have realised that a healthy business environment can only thrive if the community is well informed. In addition, the report highlights limitations experienced by the business sector, lack of financial resources, and absence of communication between independent journalism and the private sector.

Read report

Between the Fourth Estate and the Fifth Power


Public Service Media in Europe: Between the Fourth Estate and the Fifth Power

ORF Public Value Texts

ORF is required by law to provide comprehensive quality control. In addition to the Public Value Report and the Annual Report, this consists primarily of elements created with the help of scientific expertise: The “Audience Panels”, during which the audience‘s opinion on various program pillars is explored, are evaluated by a social science institute. The representative survey on program appreciation, among other things, is conducted by social scientists, as is the testing of the quality profiles – the self-commitments of ORF editors to various program genres. And ORF‘s annual public value study, which has been published for years in cooperation with other European public broadcasters, is entrusted to outstanding experts, especially from the field of communications science. Not only the ORF-programmes with their public mission and remit to inform and educate on TV, radio, and online, but also ORF quality control is thus closely linked to scientific knowledge.

Consequently we reacted positively to the request of RIPE founder Greg Lowe and the University of Vienna to hold a separate ORF Day in Vienna for RIPE, the most important scientific conference on public service media. This first day of the conference focuses on the exchange between journalism and science on the conference topic “Between the Fourth Estate and the Fifth Power”. In addition, this issue of PUBLIC VALUE TEXTE publishes the extended abstracts of the scholars invited to the conference. We
would like to thank Michael-Bernhard Zita and Regina Außerwöger from the University of Vienna for organizing the conference and all the authors for writing the abstracts.

[Text sourced from ORF]

Read report

Are public service media distinctive from the market?


Are public service media distinctive from the market? Interpreting the political information environments of BBC and commercial news in the United Kingdom

Stephen Cushion | European Journal of Communication

With many citizens having access to a variety of media, this paper questions whether public service provides a distinctive and informative news service compared to private media? It found that BBC news and commercial public service platforms mainly covered politics, public affairs and international issues,  plus BBC news online covered more informative topics than the market-based media which reported more  on celebrity and entertainment news. In addition, where public service media reported with a world view perspective, market-driven media reported news with a UK perspective.

Read report

Finding the funds for journalism to thrive


Finding the funds for journalism to thrive

Policy options to support media viability

UNESCO | Dr. Anya Schiffrin, Prof. Emily Bell, Dr. Julie Posetti & Francesca Edgerton
Published: 2022

“This brief comes as part of the UNESCO series World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development. The brief addresses how policymakers can best respond to the severe financial crisis threatening the supply of independent journalism. It provides a typology of global responses, assesses their pros and cons, and makes 22 actionable recommendations. It builds on the Windhoek+30 Declaration, which underlines media viability as a core principle of information as a public good.”

[Text sourced from UNESCO]

Download policy brief

Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge (Swedish)


Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge

Published: June 2022

“The purpose of Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge is to present in an easily accessible way what empirical research has come to in key issues concerning public service. The chapter authors are active at Swedish universities and colleges, and most of the results and conclusions presented are based on reviews of previously published research. In all chapters, the focus is on public service news journalism.

Public service: A Swedish overview of knowledge is aimed at anyone with an interest in public service – not least politicians, journalists and public debaters.”

[Text sourced from Nordicom]

Download report (Swedish)

Ukraine protests Warsaw

Resources for Media Workers Covering the Conflict in Ukraine

The Public Media Alliance team has compiled a list of recommended tools and resources for journalists and media organisations covering the fast-developing war in Ukraine. It includes links and guides on conflict reporting, financial assistance and journalist safety. This resource will be updated regularly.

Updated: 25 March 2022

Explore our other relevant tools pages, including Fact Checking & Investigative Journalism Tools and Refugee crises and migration reporting.

Featured resource

Lviv Press Freedom Center

Reporters without Borders (RSF) and its local Ukrainian partner, the Institute for Mass Information (IMI) have launched a press freedom center in Lviv, Western Ukraine, that will provide vital physical and digital assistance for journalists working under dangerous conditions in Ukraine. Journalists will be offered protective equipment such as bulletproof vests and helmets; the center itself can also be used as a place for shelter in the event of an attack. They will also be offered information and advice on financial and psychological assistance.

Foreign journalists can also work from the Center between 8am and 8pm where they will have access to internet connection and live-streaming capacities.

CAN YOU HELP? RSF is calling on international donors and media outlets to contact RSF to help provide funds and equipment needed to supply the Center.

Header Image: Warsaw, Poland. 24 February 2022. Anti-war protest outside Russian embassy in Warsaw. Demonstrators call for peace and condemn Putin. Credit: Grand Warszawski /